Saturday, March 14, 2020
How to Start a Book Report No matter what youre writing, be it the next great novel, an essay for school, or a book report, you have to capture your audiences attention with a great introduction. Most students will introduce the title of the book and its author, but theres so much more you can do. A strong introduction will help you engage your readers, hold their attention and explain what is coming up in the rest of your report. Giving your audience something to look forward to, and perhaps even creating a little mystery and excitement, can be great ways to make sure your readers stay engaged with your report. How do you do this? Check out these three simple steps: 1. Hook the Audience's Attention Think about what you experience in your daily life that captures your attention. The news and radio shows promo upcoming stories with a little teaser, often called a hook (because it hooks your attention). Corporations use snappy subject lines in emails and enticing headlines in social media to get you to open their messages; these are often called clickbait as they get the reader to click on the content. So how can you grab your readers attention? Start by writing a greatÃ introductory sentence. You may choose to begin by asking your reader a question to hook his or her interest. Or you may opt for a title that hints at the topic of your report with a dash of drama. Regardless of the way you choose to start a book report, the four strategies outlined here can help you write an engaging essay. Starting your book report with a question is a good way to grab your readers interest because youre addressing them directly. Consider the following sentences: Do you believe in happy endings?Have you ever felt like a total outsider?Do you love a good mystery?What would you do if you discovered a secret that changed everything? Most people have a ready answer for questions like these because they speak to common experiences we share. Its a means of creating empathy between the person reading your book report and the book itself. For example, consider this opening to a book report about The Outsiders by S.E. Hinton: Have you ever been judged by your appearance? In The Outsiders, S.E. Hinton gives readers a glimpse inside the tough exterior of a social outcast. Not everyones teenage years are as dramatic as those in Hintons coming-of-age novel. But everyone was once an adolescent, and odds are everyone had moments when they felt misunderstood or alone. Another idea to hook someones attention is, if youre discussing a book by a well-known or popular author, you might start with an interesting fact about the era when the author was alive and how it influenced his or her writing. For example: As a young child, Charles Dickens was forced to work in a shoe polish factory. In his novel, Hard Times, Dickens taps into his childhood experience to explore the evils of social injustice and hypocrisy. Not everyone has read Dickens, but many people have heard his name. By starting your book report with a fact, youre appealing to your readers curiosity. Similarly, you may choose an experience from the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s life that had an impact on his or her work.Ã 2. Summarize the Content and Provide Details A book report is meant to discuss the contents of the book at hand, and your introductory paragraph should give a little overview. This isnt the place to delve into details, but draw off your hook to share a little more information that is crucial to the storyline.Ã For example, sometimes, a novels setting is what makes it so powerful. To Kill a Mockingbird, the award-winning book by Harper Lee, takes place in a small town in Alabama during the Great Depression. The author draws on her own experiences in recalling a time when a small Southern towns sleepy exterior hid a vague sense of impending change. In this example, the reviewer might include a reference to the books setting and plot in that first paragraph: Set in the sleepy town of Maycomb, Alabama during the Depression, we learn about Scout Finch and her father, a prominent lawyer, as he desperately works to prove the innocence of a black man wrongly accused of rape. The controversial trial leads to some unexpected interactions and someÃ terrifying situations for the Finch Family. Authors make a deliberate choice when selecting the setting of a book. After all, the location and setting can set a very distinct mood.Ã 3. Make a Thesis Statement (if applicable) When writing a book report, you might also include your own interpretations of the subject matter. Ask your teacher how much personal interpretation he or she wants first, but assuming that some personal opinion is warranted, your introduction should include a thesis statement. This is where you present the reader with your own argumentÃ about the work. To write a strong thesis statement, which should be about one sentence, you might reflect on what the author was trying to achieve. Consider the theme and see if the book was written in such a way where you were able to determine it easily and if it made sense. As yourself a few questions: Was the book meant to be entertaining or informative? Did it accomplish that goal?Did the moral at the end make sense? Did you learn something?Did the book make you think about the topic at hand and assess your beliefs?Ã Once youve asked yourself these questions, and any other questions you may think of, see if these responses lead you to a thesis statement in which you assess the success of the novel. Sometimes, a thesis statement is widely shared, while others may be more controversial. In the example below, the thesis statement is one that few would dispute, Ã¢â¬â¹and uses dialogue from the text to help illustrate the point.Ã Authors choose dialogue carefully, and a single phrase from a character can often represent both a major theme and your thesis. A well-chosen quote included in your book reports introduction can help you create a thesis statement that has a powerful impact on your readers, as in this example: At its heart, the novel To Kill A Mockingbird is a plea for tolerance in an atmosphere of intolerance, and is a statement on social justice. As theÃ characterÃ Atticus Finch tells his daughter, You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view...until you climb into his skin and walk around in it. Quoting Finch is effective because his words sum up the novels theme concisely and also appeal to the readers own sense of tolerance. Conclusion Dont worry if your first attempt at writing an introductory paragraph is less than perfect. Writing is an act of fine-tuning, and you may need several revisions. The idea is to start your book report by identifying your general theme so that you can move on to the body of your essay. After youve written the entire book report, you can (and should) return to the introduction to refine it. Creating an outline can help you best identify what you need in your introduction. Article editedÃ byÃ Stacy Jagodowski
Thursday, February 27, 2020
Reflective your strength and weakness in administration - Essay Example Third, strategic direction is crucial and having a vision and mission is what operationally makes a leader succeed or fail. Strategy weighs heavy on the Ã¢â¬Å"howÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"whyÃ¢â¬ and less so on the Ã¢â¬Å"whereÃ¢â¬ hence it is important to have a mission and a vision that is in line with each other. Corollary to this, after planning and goal setting, administrators get things done as plans and goals are not much use if they do not materialize. Fourth and personally the most important for me, leaders naturally need to influence others and have friends that they have purposely nurtured. Admittedly, every leader requires great people around them who when challenged, take up the call, and make the most out of it. One of my administrative strengths includes micromanaging, not just people, but goals as well with a particular refinement for detail. I remember doing thus when a professor had to inspect a certain project of ours within a few weeks time. As a large project of ours with minimal team members working on it, it had a number of problem areas that were likely to receive poor grades, in particular design and its relation to the overall goal of the project. With a very short timeframe available, I would be unable to make substantial changes I have in view for the longer term. For example, developing a more strategic and novel way of communicating with other members during the planning process and taking the pressure off the acting committee head of design, currently struggling, by recruiting someone with more experience into the post will have to be postponed. I knew then that I had to focus on ensuring that my project showed itself from the best perspective in front of our professors. I had work hard with my other group members, having some sleepless nights, to ensure everything was in place- logistics have been taken care of, audiences have been ushered in well, while all
Monday, February 10, 2020
Why should we apply the death penalty to the remaining younger brother who did the Boston marathon bombing or why shouldnt we - Essay Example This remaining criminal, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, after confirmation of the crime will be punished by the death penalty according to the United States Attorney General Eric Holder who detailed charges for the 19-year old survivor. In support of this statement, this essay will provide an argumentative analysis on the plight of the criminal with death as the alternative penalty. ARGUMENT Mere punishments, such as life imprisonment, for the person like Dzhokhar Tsarnaev might not be a better punishment because his action is a serious humanity crime. Humanity crime that involves killing is a weighty offence that needs instant penalties. In such cases people who cause a grave public disturbance should face a charge equal to the crime committed. Causing death to innocent people shows that the violators do not value the life of other people (Kotz n.pag.). This, therefore, implies that this person should be subjected to death penalty as a lesson to the other criminals alleged with the same crime. Some criminals do not forget their usual activities even after maltreatment in the cell, and, thus, it is necessary for the court to raise concerns for the applicable punishment for such criminals. We might argue that the remaining criminal has learned a lesson after the death of his brother (Kotz n.pag.). People who point guns at the police mean that they have the capability shooting other people because now they despise the police force.
Friday, January 31, 2020
Video games and children Essay When live in the digital age, itÃ¢â¬â¢s a fact. Children are using more technology than ever and in many ways it makes life safer and easier for families. But when 40- 75% of children in middle school already have cell phones, as well as 89% of children have their own laptops, and 97% of children and young adults play video games and/or own a gaming system. With the prevalence of video games obvious many adults have started asking themselves how these games affect their children. Should I be worried that my child is playing violent video games? How long should I allow my child to play video games? These questions are ones parents who are raising children in the era of technology should be asking, these are the questions that have prompted experts to conduct countless studies on the topic. So here it is the good, bad, and ugly of video games effect on children. I will present information on the positive effects of gaming the negative effects of gaming, and what experts recommend is healthy for a child. Violent shoot Ã¢â¬Ëem up games or seemingly mindless racing games like Mario Kart or time consuming apps like Angry Birds donÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily bring pleasant thoughts to many parents minds but believe it or not there are some positive effects from video games. Video games actually improve problem solving and logic skills. Specifically, the popular app Angry Birds forces children and adults alike to quickly come up with creative solutions to problems. As for those violent video games parents begrudgingly by their children, well they tend to increase hand-eye coordination, fine motor skills, and spatial skills. Shooting games often require the virtual character to be running and shooting at the same time. In order to be successful the real life controller must keep track of the character, obstacles in the characters way, the targets position, and the speed at which they are pursuing each other and if the gunfire is hitting the target. Processing this information indeed causes the controller to use hand-eye coordination skills as well as using their spatial ability to be successful. Some studies even suggest that experience with video games maybe a contributing factor as to why fighter pilots of today are more successful with the controls. Also making a fast analysis of a situation and then being able to quickly make a decision gives your brain a real work out. According to researchers at the University of Rochester, led by Daphne Bavelier, who is a cognitive scientist, says that gaming simulating stressful events like those found in battle or action games is a training tool for real world situations. Her study suggests that playing action video games prepares the brain to make quick decisions, Video games similar to virtual simulations that already exist could possibly be used to train soldiers and surgeons. Also according to the same study from the University of Rochester action games train the players brains to make decisions quickly with out losing accuracy. Also a study from the Appalachia Educational Laboratory revealed that children with Attention-Deficit Disorder who played the popular arcade game Dance Dance Revolution improved their reading scores by helping them concentrate. Now that we have reviewed the positive effects of video games, it is time to look at how video games can negatively affect children. First from addiction blog. org video games can cause an increase in emotional and behavioral disorder symptoms. It cuts family interaction time in half and it reduces the about of REM or resting sleep you get. Also it can increase childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s violent tendencies. This is because in video games kids are rewarded for the violence, and the violence it committed repeatedly. This participation and reward system are tools that people use for learning behaviors. Also researchers from the University of Minnesota found that game addicts or kids who frequently play video games are more argumentative with teachers, fight with their friends and score lower grades. Also though some studies like the one previously mentioned here say that video games can improve a childÃ¢â¬â¢s concentration, this has been proven to only help concentration in short bursts of times but a childÃ¢â¬â¢s overall attentiveness can be harmed. Also a study from the National Institute for Media and the Family suggests that video games can be addictive for kids, and that video games increase their depression and anxiety levels. Also the University of Texas at Dallas notes that excessive video gaming can lead to eyestrain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and back issues. As well as desensitization which is where people no longer react to a sensory to the condition of fear or violence. Also according to science daily some people can react with seizures to excessive video games. Some people have died after marathon video game binges. Now that we have looked at the positive and negative effects of video games, we can look at what experts recommend for children; in terms of how long they play video games and what games they play. It is suggested that parents monitor the video games kids play just like they monitor websites and television show. As well as abide to the two hours of screen time rule from the American Academy of Pediatrics. Screen time in this case means any time spent in front of a computer, television, or cell phone doing anything besides calling or texting. Also the Palo Alto Medical Foundation recommends withholding from installing video game equipment in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s bedrooms. Finally experts say to follow the warning labels on games. These warning labels go from EC meaning early childhood to T for teen M for mature and AO for adults only. Although these warnings are out there, no one is enforcing them. Any child or teenager can go into a place like Game Stop and buy any video game regardless of the warning. Many people are fighting to put restrictions on games, such as if a game has a mature label or adult only having to provide identification to purchase it. If we have restrictions on other dangerous substances then why not these? There is no denying that video games can have positive effects. In certain situations they can even be used as learning tools. But parents need to monitor the video games children are playing like they would monitor the television shows they are watching. But one question we need to ask ourselves as a society is, do the pros outweigh the cons or is it the other way around? The negative effects of video games are extreme, but now you now the positive the negative and what to do to make sure you or your child is safe from the dangers of video games.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
Racial and Cultural Test Bias, Stereotype Threat and Their Implications A substantial amount of educational and psychological research has consistently demonstrated that African American students underperform academically relative to White students. For example, they tend to receive lower grades in school (e.g., Demo & Parker, 1987; Simmons, Brown, Bush, & Blyth, 1978), score lower on standardized tests of intellectual ability (e.g., Bachman, 1970; Herring, 1989; Reyes & Stanic, 1988; Simmons et al., 1978), drop out at higher rates (e.g., American Council on Education, 1990; Steele, 1992), and graduate from college with substantially lower grades than White students (e.g., Nettles, 1988). Such performance gaps can be attributed to any number of factors, such as socioeconomic status, academic preparation, and educational opportunities; however, Steele (1997) pointed out that even when background factors are held constant, subsequent achievement remains lower for minority students. Moreover, much research in this area has focused on how African America n studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ lack of motivation and negative attitudes contribute to their inferior academic performance (Ogbu, 1990); yet many Black students often report high educational aspirations (Fordham, 1996; Fine, 1991; Ogbu, 1987, 1990; Hauser & Anderson, 1991), even higher than White students of comparable class background (MacLeod, 1995). What remains certain is the urgent need to explain what accounts for the persistent academic underachievement of Black students. One widely held explanation for the achievement gap in test performance between Black and White students is that the tests are either culturally or racially biased. Jencks (1998) points out three types of biases... ...lantic Monthly, 68-78. Steele, C. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist, 52, 6, 613-629. Steele, C., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 5, 797-811. Steele, C., Spencer, S. J., & Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. (In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 34, pp. 379-440. New York, NY: Academic Press. Vars, F. E., & Bowen, W. G. (1998). Scholastic aptitude test scores, race, and academic performance in selective colleges and universities. (In Jencks, C. & Phillips, M. (Eds.), The Black-White Test Score Gap (pp. 55-85). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.)
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
This essay describes and evaluates the contributions of Bowlby, Ainsworth, Murray-Parkes, Kubler-Ross and Worden, as well as later theorists, to their respective fields. I demonstrate how I already work with some of these models, highlighting my strengths and areas for development. I emphasise some influences on BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s work, leading to his trilogy Attachment 1969; Separation 1973; and Loss, Sadness and Depression 1980; demonstrating how attachments in infancy may shape our attachment styles in later life.Pietromonaco and Barrett posit Ã¢â¬Å"A central tenet of attachment theory is that people develop mental representations, or internal working models that consist of expectations about the self, significant others and the relationship between the two. Ã¢â¬ (Pietromonaco and Barrett, 2000, 4:2, p156). I illustrate how this internal working model is developed via the relationship between infant and primary caregiver, demonstrating that maternal deprivation can create a Ã¢â¬ ËfaultyÃ¢â¬â¢ internal working model, which may lead to psychopathology in later life.I also demonstrate how these internal working models influence our reactions to loss and bereavement in adulthood and their potential impact on the counselling relationship. In addition, I explore the multi-layered losses experienced by HIV+ gay men and finally draw some conclusions. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s view on the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s attachment to its mother was quite simple Ã¢â¬Å"the reason why the infant in arms wants to perceive the presence of its mother is only because it already knows by experience that she satisfies all its needs without delay.Ã¢â¬ (Freud, 1924, p188 cited in Eysenck, 2005, p103).In contrast, behaviourists believed that feeding played a central role in the development of attachment. (Pendry, 1998; Eysenck, 2005). These theories were termed Ã¢â¬Ësecondary-drive theoriesÃ¢â¬â¢. In 1980, Bowlby recalled Ã¢â¬Å"this [secondary drive] theory did not seem to me to fit the facts Ã¢â¬ ¦. but, if the secondary dependency was inadequate, what was the alternative? Ã¢â¬ (Bowlby,1980, p650 cited in Cassidy and Shaver, 1999, p3).BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory was influenced by his paper Ã¢â¬Å"Forty Four Juvenile ThievesÃ¢â¬ , where he concluded a correlation exists between maternal deprivation in infancy, leading to affectionless psychopathology and subsequent criminal behaviour in adolescents. (Bowlby, 1944, 25, p19-52). This led to him researching the impact of loss on children displaced through war and institutionalisation, resulting in Ã¢â¬ËMaternal Care and Mental HealthÃ¢â¬â¢ (1952), where he confirms a link between Ã¢â¬Ëenvironmental traumaÃ¢â¬â¢ and resultant disturbances in child development.As a result of this research, Bowlby concluded Ã¢â¬Å"it is psychological deprivation rather than the economic, nutritional or medical deprivation that is the cause of troubled children. Ã¢â¬ (Bowlby in Coates, 2004, 52, p577). He was further influenced by L orenz who found that goslings would follow and Ã¢â¬ËattachÃ¢â¬â¢ themselves to the first moving object they saw. This following of the first moving object was called Ã¢â¬ËimprintingÃ¢â¬â¢. (Lorenz, 1937 cited in Kaplan, 1998, p124).Clearly babies cannot follow at will Ã¢â¬â to compensate for this, Ã¢â¬ Bowlby noted that Ã¢â¬ËimprintingÃ¢â¬â¢ manifested itself as a spectacularly more complex phenomenon in primates, including man, which he later labelled Ã¢â¬ËattachmentÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ (Hoover, 2004, 11:1, p58-60). He also embraced the work of Harlow and Zimmerman who worked with infant rhesus monkeys demonstrating that not only did the need for attachment give them security, but that this need took priority over their need for food. (Harlow and Zimmerman 1959 cited in Green and Scholes, 2003, p9).Dissatisfied with traditional theories, Bowlby embraced new understandings through discussion with colleagues from such fields as developmental psychology, ethology, cont rol systems theory and cognitive science, leading him to formulate his theory that the mechanisms underlying the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s tie to the mother originally emerged as a result of evolutionary and biological pressures. (Cassidy and Shaver, 1999; Green and Scholes, 2003).Defining his attachment theory as Ã¢â¬Å"a way of conceptualising the propensity of human beings to make strong affectional bonds to particular others.Ã¢â¬ (Bowlby, 1979 cited in Green and Scholes, 2003, p7), he posited Ã¢â¬Å"that it is our affectional bonds to attachment figures that engage us in our most intense emotions. Ã¢â¬ and that Ã¢â¬Å"this occurs during their formation (we call that Ã¢â¬Ëfalling in love), in their maintenance (which we describe as Ã¢â¬Ëloving) and in their loss (which we know as Ã¢â¬ËgrievingÃ¢â¬â¢), (Green and Scholes, 2003, p8), thereby replacing the secondary-drive theory with a model emphasising the role relationships play in attachment and loss. (Waters, Crowell, Elliot t et all, 2002, 4, p230-242).Disregarding what he called Freud's Ã¢â¬Ëcupboard loveÃ¢â¬â¢ theory of attachment, he believed instead that a child is born Ã¢â¬Ëbiologically pre-disposedÃ¢â¬â¢ to become attached to its mother, claiming this bond has two essential features: the biological function of securing protection for survival and the physiological and psychological need for security. (Green and Scholes, 2003; Schaffer, 2004). Sonkin (2005) describes four features to this bond: secure base, separation protest, safe haven and proximity maintenance.The concept of a secure base is fundamental to attachment theory and is used to describe a dependable attachment to a primary caregiver. This secure base is established by providing consistent levels of safety, responsiveness and emotional comfort from within which the infant can explore his or her external and internal worlds and to which they can return, thus providing a sense of security. Separation protest is exhibited as a si gn of the distress experienced upon separation from an attachment figure, who may also be used as a safe haven to turn to for comfort in times of distress.When safety is threatened, infants attract the attention of their primary caregiver through crying or screaming. Maintaining attention and interest, e. g. vocalising and smiling, and seeking or maintaining proximity, e. g. following or clinging, all serve to promote the safety provided by the secure base (providing of course that parents respond appropriately). (Holmes, 1993; Cassidy and Shaver 1999; Becket, 2002; Green and Scholes, 2003).Proximity seeking is a two way process, for example child seeking parent or parent seeking child. (Weiss in Murray-Parkes, Stevenson-Hinde and Marris, 1991; Becket, 2004; Sonkin, 2007). Bowlby also recognised Ã¢â¬ËunwillingÃ¢â¬â¢ separation caused by parents who were phsycially present but not able to respond, or who deprived infants of love or ill-treated them, left them with a sense of imme nse deprivation and that this unwilling separation and resultant loss leads to deep emotional distress. (Green and Scholes, 2003).At a recent conference, the Centre for Attachment based Psychoanalytical Psychotherapy (CAPP) asserts Ã¢â¬Å"Early interactions with significant others in which there are fundamental failures of empathy, attunement, recognition and regulation of emotional states, have been shown to cause the global breakdown of any coherent attachment strategy, thus engendering fears of disintegration and threatening psychic survival. In the face of such experiences, powerful dissociative defences may be employed, encapsulating overwhelming feelings of fear, rage and shame. Ã¢â¬ (CAPP, 2007).Together with Robertson and Rosenbluth, Bowlby demonstrated that even brief separation from the mother has profound emotional effects on the infant. Their research highlighted a three stage behavioural response to this separation: protest Ã¢â¬â related to separation anxiety; des pair Ã¢â¬â related to grief and mourning; and detachment Ã¢â¬â related to defences. (Robertson, Rosenbluth, Bowlby, 1952 in Murray-Parkes, Stevenson-Hinde and Marris, 1991). Ainsworth, Blehar, Waters and Wall (1978) later established the inter-relatedness between attachment behaviour, maternal sensitivity and exploration in the child.Under clinical settings, they sought to observe the effects of temporary separation from the mother, which was assessed via the Ã¢â¬Ëstrange situationÃ¢â¬â¢ procedure. This study involved children between the ages of 12 to 18 months who experienced separation from their mother, introduction to an unfamiliar adult and finally reunion with their mother. Ainsworth et al reasoned that if attachment was strong, mother would be used as a secure base from which the infant could explore, thereby promoting self-reliance and autonomy. Upon separation, infants usually demonstrated separation anxiety.Upon re-union, the motherÃ¢â¬â¢s maternal sensitivity and the childÃ¢â¬â¢s responses were observed, thus providing a link between BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory and its application to individual experience. The trust/mistrust in the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to explore their world from the secure base is re-inforced by EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s (1965) examination of early development and the childÃ¢â¬â¢s experiencing of the world as a place that is nurturing, reliable and trustworthy (or not). Influenced by AinsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s previous work in Uganda, the Ã¢â¬Ëstrange situationÃ¢â¬â¢ led to the classification of secure or insecure attachment styles in infants.Insecure styles were further grouped into insecure/avoidant and insecure/resistant (ambivalent). (Pendry, 1998; Holmes, 2001; Eysenck, 2005). Main and Solomon later added a fourth attachment style Ã¢â¬â insecure/disorganised. (Main and Solomon, 1986 in Cassidy and Shaver, 1999, p290). Throughout all of these interactions, an Ã¢â¬Ëinternal working modelÃ¢â¬â¢ is developed, the cultivat ion of which relies on the dyadic patterns of relating between primary caregiver and infant (Bretherton, 1992, 28, p759-775), comprising the complex monitoring of internal states of primary caregiver and infant.Ã (Waters, Crowell, Elliott et al, 2002, 4, p230-242).According to Schore Ã¢â¬Å"These formative experiences are embedded in the developing attachment relationship Ã¢â¬â nature and nurture first come together in mother-infant psychobiological interactions. Ã¢â¬ (Schore, 2001, 17, p26). Over time, this leads to the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to self-monitor their emotions (affect regulation), but until such time, Bowlby posited the mother acts as the childÃ¢â¬â¢s ego and super-ego Ã¢â¬ She orients him in space and time, provides his environment, permits the satisfaction of some impulses, restricts others.She is his ego and his super-ego. Ã¢â¬ (Bowlby, 1951, p53 cited in Bretherton, 1992, 28, p765). Bowlby concluded a healthy internal working model is Ã¢â¬Å"a worki ng model of an attachment figure who is conceived as accessible, trustworthy and ready to help when called uponÃ¢â¬ , whilst a Ã¢â¬ËfaultyÃ¢â¬â¢ model is Ã¢â¬Å"a working model of an attachment figure to whom are attributed such characteristics as uncertain accessibility, unwilllingness to respond helpfully, or perhaps the likelihood of responding hostilely. Ã¢â¬ (Bowlby, 1979, p141).Ainsworth suggests that positive attachment is more than explicit behaviour Ã¢â¬Å"it is built into the nervous system, in the course and as a result of the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of his transactions with the mother. Ã¢â¬ (Ainsworth, 1967, p429), thus supporting BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory. Later descriptions of attachment styles describe secure attachment as Ã¢â¬Å"the development of the basic machinery to self-regulate affects later in lifeÃ¢â¬ , (Fonagy, Gergely and Jurist, 2002 cited in Sarkar and Adshead, 2006, 12, p297), whilst insecure attachment Ã¢â¬Å"prevents the development of a proper affect regulatory capacity.Ã¢â¬ (Sarkar and Adshead, 2006, 12, p297).This is supported by Schore (2003) who alludes to developmental affective neuroscience to set out a framework for affect regulation and dysregulation. Based on research into the development of the infant brain, he reviews neuro-scientific evidence to confirm the infantÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship with the primary caregiver has a direct effect on the development of brain structures and pathways involved in both affect regulation and dysregulation.The research and evidence suggests the internal working model begins as soon as the child is born and is the model upon which future relationships are formed. The quality of the primary caregiverÃ¢â¬â¢s response to infant distress provides the foundation upon which behavioural and cognitive strategies are developed, which in the longer term influence thoughts, feelings and behaviours in adult relationships. (Cardwell, Wadeley and Murphy, 2000; Pietromonaco and Barrett , 2000, 4:2, p155; Madigan, Moran and Pederson, 2006, 42:2, p293).A healthy, secure attachment to the primary caregiver would therefore appear essential for a childÃ¢â¬â¢s social, emotional and intellectual development, whilst interruption to this attachment would appear to promote the premise of psychopathology in later life. Whilst some evidence exists to demonstrate internal working models can be modified by different environmental experiences, (Riggs, Vosvick and Stallings, 2007, 12:6, p922-936), the extent to which they can change remains in question.Bowlby himself postulated Ã¢â¬Å"clinical evidence suggests that the necessary revisions of the model are not always easy to achieve. Usually they are completed but only slowly, often they are done imperfectly, and sometimes done not at all. Ã¢â¬ (Bowlby, 1969, p83). Whilst change may be possible, the unconscious aspects of internal working models are deemed to be specifically resistant to such change. (Prior and Glaser, 2006) . We can safely assume therefore, that in the majority of cases, internal working models tend to persist for life.I concur with RutterÃ¢â¬â¢s criticism of Bowlby's concept of Ã¢â¬ËmonotropyÃ¢â¬â¢, i.e. BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s belief that babies develop one primary attachment, usually the mother, (Rutter, 1981 cited in Lucas, 2007, 13, p156 and in Eysenck 2005), accepting instead that infants form multiple attachments. This is supported by a study by Shaffer and Emmerson (1964) who concluded infants form a Ã¢â¬ËhierarchyÃ¢â¬â¢ of attachments, often with the mother as the primary attachment figure, although nearly a third of children observed highlighted the father as the primary attachment figure. (Schaffer and Emmerson, 1964 in Cassidy and Shaver, 1999, p44-67).Collins, Dunlop and Chrysler criticise BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËlensÃ¢â¬â¢ in that it was Ã¢â¬Å"limited by his own cultural, historical and class position. BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s culturally biased assumptions and empiricist metho ds of inquiry concentrated on individualised detachment and loss as part of the normal course of mourning loss, which perpetuated the Western tradition of preserving the autonomous individual self as the normal goal of development. Ã¢â¬ (Collins, Dunlop and Chrysler, 2002, p98), leading them to conclude BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s assumptions ignored other cultural practices (as did Ainsworths), with which I agree.They also suggest BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of maternal deprivation was perhaps exploited to get women to return to the home post World War II Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Characterised as a choice, this Ã¢â¬Ëhomeward boundÃ¢â¬â¢ movement was supported by the various governments, whose maternalist and pronatalist ideology of the 1930s continued into the post-war period to provide a rationale for sending women home to reproduce Ã¢â¬ ¦ maternalism and the maternal deprivation hypothesis provided one conceptual framework for pronatal ideology as it intersectedÃ with the demands of governments and industrialists. Ã¢â¬ (Collins, Dunlap and Chrysler, 2002, p102).We must also remember that BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s observations Ã¢â¬Å"were based on children who had been separated from their primary caregivers during the Second World WarÃ¢â¬ (Lemma, 2003 cited in Lucas, 2007, 13, p156), and that these procedures Ã¢â¬Å"were based on behaviours that occurred during stressful situations rather than under normal circumstances. Ã¢â¬ (Lucas, 2007, 13, p156) [this latter criticism also applies to AinsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s work].Nonetheless, in highlighting the damaging effects of institutionalised care on young children, BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths lie in drawing attention to the role attachment, attachment behaviour and attachment behavioural systems play in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development and the subsequent potential consequences of disruption to the bond between infant and primary caregiver. I concur with Cassidy and ShaverÃ¢â¬â¢s (1999) criticisms of the strange situation in that there a re too many unconsidered variables for a firm theory to be established at the time of AinsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s writings, accepting their view that she did not consider the mood nor temperament of the child.Nonetheless, Ainsworth et al have provided a tool with which to measure attachment styles in infants, which is still in use today. Later research by George, Kaplan and Main assesses adult internal models through the use of the Adult Attachment Interview. This classification of adult attachment styles promotes the idea of models extending into adulthood as a template for future relationships. (George, Kaplan and Main 1985 cited in Pendry, 1998).Hazan and Shaver continued this line of research identifying patterns of attachment behavior in adult romantic relationships, concluding the same four attachment styles identified in infancy remain true for adult relationships. (Hazan and Shaver 1987 in Cassidy and Shaver, 1999, p355-377). Although theoretically rooted in the same innate system, a dult romantic attachment styles differ from parent-child bonds to include reciprocity of attachment and caregiving, as well as sexual mating.Ã (Hazan and Zeifman, 1999 in Cassidy and Shaver, 1999, p336-354).The literature on bereavement has become inseparable from BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of attachment and, following from this, the way in which people react to the loss of this attachment. On reflecting on losses in adult life, Weinstein (2008) observes BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s persistence of formative attachments and how the pattern of protest, despair and detachment that follows a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s separation from its primary caregiver is re-activated and presented in full force in adult loss.Weinstein writes Ã¢â¬Å"The ability of the adult to cope with attachment in intimate relationships to negotiate independence, dependency and inter-dependency; and to manage loss is all about how successfully they coped with separation as an infant. As a baby they had to retain their sense of their mother e ven in her absence and now as adults, as part of the mourning process, they strengthen their own identity with the support of the internalised object. Ã¢â¬ (Weinstein, 2008, p34).According to Murray-Parkes (1996), the intensity and duration of this grief is relative to what is lost and the grief process is an emotional response to this loss. Murray-Parkes joined Bowlby at the Tavistock Centre in 1962. Together they presented a paper linking the protests of separation highlighted by Robertson, Rosenbluth and Bowlby (1952) in young children separated from their mothers, to grief in adults. (Bowlby and Murray-Parkes, 1970 in Murray-Parkes, Stevenson-Hinde and Marris, 1991, p20).Around the same time, Murray-Parkes visited Kubler-Ross who was conducting her own research into death and dying. This work was later published in Ã¢â¬ËOn Death and DyingÃ¢â¬â¢ (1969) which examines the process of coming to terms with terminal illness or grief in five stages: denial; anger; bargaining; de pression and acceptance. Murray-Parkes later produced a four-phase grief model consisting: shock or numbness; yearning and pining; disorganisation and despair; and re-organisation.In contrast to the passive staged/phased approaches by Kubler-Ross and Murray-Parkes, and perhaps more in line with FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s concept of having Ã¢â¬Ëto do grief workÃ¢â¬â¢, Worden developed a four-staged, task-based grief model: Ã¢â¬Å"to accept the reality of the loss; to work through the pain of grief; to adjust to an environment in which the deceased is missing; and to emotionally relocate the deceased and move on with life. Ã¢â¬ (Worden, 2003). All three models are deemed to be therapeutically useful in that they recognise grief as a process and provide a framework of descriptors for Ã¢â¬ËnormalisingÃ¢â¬â¢ grief reactions.That said, they are clearly prescriptive and caution should be exercised in taking any of these prescriptive stages, phases or tasks literally. It is equally important to recognise the uniqueness of individual responses to loss and to avoid prescribing where a client Ã¢â¬ËoughtÃ¢â¬â¢ to be in their grieving process. Since these models were never designed as a linear process, it is likewise important not to steer clients through these stages. This is supported by Schuchter and Zisook (1993), who assert Ã¢â¬Å"Grief is not a linear process with concrete boundaries but, rather, a composite of overlapping, fluid phases that vary from person to person.Ã¢â¬ (Schuchter and Zisook, 1993 in Stroebe, Stroebe and Hansson, 1993, p23).I agree with Servaty-SeibÃ¢â¬â¢s observations Ã¢â¬Å"the stage/phase approaches emerged solely from a death-loss focus Ã¢â¬ ¦ WordenÃ¢â¬â¢s work was an important development in the understanding of the process of coping adaptively with bereavement as each task is clearly defined in an action-oriented manner. Ã¢â¬ (Servaty-Seib, 2004, 26:2, p125). Stroebe and SchutÃ¢â¬â¢s dual process model brings together death- loss focus and task-based models. (Stroebe and Schut, 2001 cited in Servaty-Seib, 2004, 26:2, p125).In my work at Positive East, I work with HIV+ gay men experiencing multi-layered loss. My philosophy is to build and maintain a therapeutic relationship within a safe, confidential, contained space where clients can explore their issues. The archetype Ã¢â¬Ëworking towards a model of gay affirmative therapyÃ¢â¬â¢ (Davies and Neal, 1996, p24-40) provides me with a framework within which to explore gay culture and to apply an assenting approach to the work, which I believe promotes empathy and helps me to work in the best interests of the client.Conducting my own assessments, I complete a full client history, genogram and timeline, which provides a comprehensive insight into clients attachments and losses. It is important to acknowledge the social context within which multi-layered loss takes place (e. g. heterosexism, homophobia, HIV-related stigma) as well as recognising that indiv idual attachment styles may influence individual reactions to these losses and may also impact on the counselling relationship.Losses experienced by HIV+ gay men include loss of identity, health, appearance, mobility, self-respect, career, financial security, relationships and intimacy. (Riggs, Vosvick and Stallings, 2007, 12:6, p922-936; Koopman, Gore-Felton, Marouf et al, 2000, 12:5, p663-672; Fernandez and Ruiz, 2006, p356). Corr, Nabe and Corr (1997) describe these losses as the cognitive, affective and behavioural responses to the impact of the loss. In identifying attachment styles in HIV+ adults, Riggs, Vosvick and Stallings (2007) found that 90% of gay and bisexual HIV+ adults recruited into their study demonstrated insecure attachment.They suggest the diagnosis of HIV produces a strong trauma reaction, impacting on adult attachment style. In the same study, they found that HIV+ heterosexual adults were more likely to be secure, whereas gay and bisexual adults were more like ly to be fearful, preoccupied, avoidant; or dismissing, respectively. This led them to conclude that gay and bisexual people must therefore contend with societal forces that their heterosexual counterparts do not.They hypothesise Ã¢â¬Å"A diagnosis of HIV may be reminiscent of the coming out process, particularly with respect to concerns regarding stigma and disclosure, and thus may provoke similar fears about rejection by loved ones and society as a whole that contribute to greater attachment insecurity. Ã¢â¬ (Riggs, Vosvick and Stallings, 2007, 12:6, p931). This is supported by Koopman, Gore-Felton, Marouf et al (2000) who cite attachment style as a contributing factor associated with the high levels of stress experienced by HIV+ individuals.They comment Ã¢â¬Å"From this perspective, perceived stress is likely to be greater among [HIV+] persons having a highly anxious attachment style because their hypervigilance in interpersonal relationships leads to misinterpreting othersÃ¢â ¬â¢ behaviours as rejecting or critical of themselves. Ã¢â¬ (Koopman, Gore-Felton, Marouf et al, 2000, 12:5, p670). This would suggest that HIV+ gay men with insecure attachment style may experience difficulties in developing and maintaining relationships, which, in turn, may impact on the therapeutic relationship.Additionally, according to Kelly, Murphy, Bahr et al Ã¢â¬Å"Dependable and supportive attachments play a crucial role in adjusting to HIV infection. Lack of such attachments and social support has been shown to be a significant predictor of emotional stress among HIV+ adults. Ã¢â¬ (Kelly, Murphy, Bahr et al, 1993, 12:3, p215-219). This has significant implications for the psychological well being of HIV+ gay men whom, considering their perceived attachment difficulties, may experience difficulties in forming such supportive relationships.In examining the suitability of the common grief models when working with this client group, I accept CoppÃ¢â¬â¢s criticism of the Kubler-Ross model for its focus on psychosocial dynamics Ã¢â¬Å"to the exclusion of physical, and to a lesser extent, spiritual dimensions. Ã¢â¬ (Copp, 1998, 28:2, p383). I also agree with KnappÃ¢â¬â¢s criticisms of the staged/phased grief models espoused by Kubler-Ross and Murray-Parkes. Knapp observes Ã¢â¬Å"while both of these models may be applicable to those experiencing a singular loss, neither model takes intoÃ consideration the multiplicity of losses thrust upon the seropositive gay male population.These men experience overlapping losses, resulting in them being at differing stages with respect to different losses. Ã¢â¬ (Knapp, 2000, 6:2, p143). Knapp offers a similar criticism of the Worden model in that Ã¢â¬Å"task models fail to account for the continuity of loss in the lives of seropositive gay men. Ã¢â¬ (Knapp, 2000, 6:2, p143), with which I also concur. In addition, all three models incorporate an end point, which suggests the completion of a cycle, th ereby pre-supposing some sort of finality.These models are therefore limited in their application to my own work, since, as new losses take the place of old, my clients find themselves in a continual cycle of loss without the comfort of such an end point. Processing the loss of the Ã¢â¬Ëpre-infected selfÃ¢â¬â¢ and re-defining the Ã¢â¬ËHIV+ selfÃ¢â¬â¢ often means working with the stage of identity vs role confusion in EriksonÃ¢â¬â¢s (1965) psychosocial model. Additionally, where partners stay together, a revisiting and re-negotiation of the adult stage of intimacy may be required since intimacy is often disrupted and sometimes lost due to HIV infection.This stage is also revisited by clients where a partner chooses to end the relationship with a HIV+ partner. Working through the loss of the partner (usually due to fear of infection); as well as other significant relationships (usually due to HIV related stigma); is also key to the work. To support this work, I use the Ã¢â¬ â¢multi-dimensionalÃ¢â¬â¢ grief model by Schuchter and Zisook (1993), adopting four of their five dimensions: emotional and cognitive responses; emotional pain; changes in relationships and changes in identity.Ã (Schuchter and Zisook, 1993 in Stroebe, Stroebe and Hansson, 1993, p26-43).I have also used WordenÃ¢â¬â¢s grief model in supporting a HIV+ client whose HIV infected partner committed suicide. This work is clearly demanding and is informed by the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s internal working model of self and other. Due to perceived stigma and fear of rejection, it is not unusual for the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s attachment behavioural system to be activated throughout the therapeutic relationship. Recent research highlights the mirroring of BowlbyÃ¢â¬â¢s theory within such a relationship.Parish and Eagle (2003) and Sonkin (2005) draw attention to the manifestation of clients seeking proximity maintenance to the therapist; experiencing distress when the therapist is not available; seeking a safe haven when in distress; and using the therapist as a secure base. To cater for this, I strive to provide a secure base in therapy, ensuring I remain boundaried, punctual and professional, informing clients of any breaks and provide opportunities for clients to explore their anxieties. Clients in particular distress may also contact the agency, who in turn may contact me.My experience has taught me that clients with avoidant attachment styles take time to build trust in the therapeutic relationship. I have also found the avoidant attached usually need permission/re-assurance to grieve their losses, whilst the anxiously attached require permission/re-assurance to stop grieving their losses. I am cognisant that the therapeutic relationship promotes attachment yet at the same time acknowledge the paradox in severing this attachment at the end of therapy. Ending sensitively is therefore crucial. I recognise that clients may develop co-morbid conditions such as alcohol and recreati onal drug abuse.In line with the BACP ethical principles of beneficence, non-maleficence and self-respect (BACP Ethical Framework, 2007), I use supervision to monitor any emerging signs of such abuse, where a decision may be reached to refer these clients to external agencies or other, suitably experienced, internal counsellors. In assessing my strengths and areas for development, I am now much more aware of how early attachment experiences and internal working models impact on how clients process their losses as well as their potential impact on the counselling relationship and process.I have extensive experience of working with loss and bereavement, which is underpinned by my specialist training and practice at Positive East, as a bereavement counsellor with the Bereavement Service and as a counsellor providing support to those bereaved through homicide at Victim Support. I believe a healthy, secure attachment to a primary caregiver is necessary for a childÃ¢â¬â¢s social, emotio nal and intellectual development. In turn this promotes the development of a healthy internal working model, disruption to which may lead to psychopathology in later life.Whilst the internal working model tends to persist through the life course, I believe it can be modified by divergent experiences, but acknowledge this change may be difficult. Whilst I have extensive experience of working with loss, I now appreciate how early formative attachments influence our reactions to such loss and how these reactions may impact on the therapeutic relationship. Popular grief models clearly fall short in addressing the multi-layered losses experienced by this client group, demanding instead the integration of what is currently available.The high level of insecure attachment style demonstrated in HIV+ gay men may be due in part to the unique challenges they face within the context of HIV related stigma and negative social experiences. Finally, I believe my knowledge of theory and sensitive app lication of skills has proved to be an effective strategy in working competently, sensitively and safely with this client group. Nonetheless, I recognise the need for continuous professional development and aim to attend workshops on attachment; and mental health and HIV during the summer.
Monday, January 6, 2020
The Reconstruction Era lasted up to 1877 from the time just after the Civil War. The Reconstruction failed to bring about social and economic equality to the former slaves due to the southern whitesÃ¢â¬â¢ resentful and bitter outlook on the matter, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Jim Crow laws. After the Civil War, the southern whites were extremely resentful and bitter. In 1865 the southern states began issuing Ã¢â¬Å"black codes,Ã¢â¬ which were laws made subsequent to the Civil War that had the effect of limiting the civil rights and civil liberties of blacks. This term tends to refer to the legislation passed by southern states to control the labor, migration, and other activities of newly freed slaves. When the slaves were freed, they still hadÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The Ku Klux Act gave the president great power to intervene with southern states affected by the KlanÃ¢â¬â¢s violent acts. Federal officials eventually arrested hundreds of people suspected to have been invol ved in the Klan and the violence then subsided. However, by this time, the Ku Klux Klan had achieved its main goals in the majority of the southern states and the white supremacist governments were then in firm control. Consequently, a variety of legal measures could be taken to suppress the blacksÃ¢â¬â¢ voting and civil rights. The Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enacted that mandated racial segregation in all public facilities in southern states of the former confederacy. The blacks were said to be Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equalÃ¢â¬ and this separation led to conditions for the blacks that tended to be inferior to those provided for whites. Law-enforced segregation mainly applied to the southern United States whereas northern segregation had patterns of segregation in housing that was enforced by the covenants, bank lending practices, and job discrimination. For decades, this included discriminatory union practices for decades. The Jim Crow laws segregated public schools, public places, public transportation, restrooms, restaurants, and drinking fountains. Therefore, it did nothing to bring about social or economic equality. The southern statesÃ¢â¬â¢ bitter attitudes, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Jim Crow Laws all